Giorgio de Chiricho
Giorgio de Chirico (10 July 1888 – 20 November 1978) was an Italian painter born in Greece. He is famous for founding the scuola metafisica (metaphysical movement) along with Carlo Carra – another Italian painter. Even before he met Carra, de Chirico had developed his metaphysical style of painting, inspired by painters like Arnold Böcklin and Max Klinger. His other great influence was the philosophical works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, and notably the Greek mythology and Roman Architecture. De Chirico's metaphysical paintings had a huge impact on the later Surrealist movement, which is more than obvious in the paintings of Salvador Dalí and René Magritte – timeless perspective, illusionary figures, intense and extraordinary imagery. Paradoxically, the later career of Giorgio de Chirico passed under the mark of classical techniques and iconography, which he advocated in his article Valori plastici entitled "The Return of Craftsmanship". Although he was often criticizing his own earlier metaphysical paintings and became a major opponent of Modern art in general, he often made reproductions of his earlier works and is remembered mostly for his metaphysical visionary paintings.