DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2016/B11/S01.009

CASE STUDY OF GEOLOGICAL AND MINING CONDITIONS FOR DRIVING DOG HEADINGS ESTIMATED AT THE DESIGN STAGE AGAINST THE FACTUAL CONDITIONS OF DRIVING THE DOG HEADINGS

B. Borowka
Tuesday 13 September 2016 by Libadmin2016

References: 16th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2016, www.sgem.org, SGEM2016 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-55-1 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 28 - July 6, 2016, Book1 Vol. 1, 63-70pp

ABSTRACT
In underground mining plants, dog headings are classified in line with several criteria, depending, among other things, on their purpose, spatial orientation and lithological structure. Their dimensions are considered their common characteristics – headings are defined as headings with a small cross-section in relation to their length – which explain their name. Depending on their purpose, these headings may be divided into two main types: development and preparatory headings. In general, the purpose of development headings is to make possible the development of a deposit or its part, while the preparatory headings are aimed at preparing the longwall for exploitation (commonly they are considered as headings providing an external outline of the longwall). The geological conditions of deposits are natural conditions that are difficult to predict. The geological structure of the deposit may be predicted and estimated only with a certain accuracy level. The driving of a heading is preceded by conducting a so-called heading design in which, beside the technical and technological data, the anticipated geological and mining conditions are presented. The conditions may include: non-continuous tectonic disturbances (faults, fault zones) and continuous disturbances (folds, overthrusts, flexures), the type of floor and roof rocks and their strength and strain properties as well as natural risks (water, methane, rock bursts, gas and rock breakouts, etc.). In case of driving a heading in a coal seam, also the thickness, dip angle, thickness disturbances and seam arrangement are considered (thickness decreases, thinning, etc.). The technical design also incorporates a geological profile along the designed heading. It provides information – usually generalized – on the predicted geological structure. Due to their nature, the as-built geological records attached to the deposit documentation present a detailed geological structure resulting from the exploration of the heading by means of mining works. As the author’s investigations show, it is often the case that while driving the headings the geological and mining conditions deteriorate. This often renders following the design difficult or even impossible, even causing the necessity to re-design a given development of a deposit. As an effect, the investment costs are increased, the project performance time is extended and – most of all – the personnel is subjected to an increased risk. The article provides two such cases in which the geological and mining conditions have deteriorated in relation to the previous estimations as well as presents the consequences of these situations.

Keywords: coal mine, headings, geological and mining conditions


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